CIAO is one of the most advanced infrastructures for ground based remote sensing in Europe equipped by multi-wavelength lidar and scanning cloud radar plus additional operative instruments and is providing since early 2000s high quality long term observations of aerosol and cloud properties .

Currently, CIAO is enlarging the equipment with more advanced state of the art lidar systems, and instruments for aerosol in situ and clouds and trace gases remote sensing measurements. Additionally, an ICOS Atmosphere Class1 station is under implementation at  CIAO complementing aerosol clouds and trace gases observations with carbon cycle relevant ones.


 ACTRIS Aerosol remote sensing
Available instruments Under implementation
MUSA MW Raman lidar 3+2+dep 532  
Raymetrics Raman lidar 355 + dep Reference Mobile MW Raman lidar 3+2 + 3 depol and water vapour
Cimel triple mode Lidar laboratory for testing lidar configurations
Cimel sun photometer Optical laboratory for testing AHL optical components
Cimel sun photometer (not active anymore)  


ACTRIS Cloud remote sensing
Available instruments Under implementation
Ka-Band Doppler radar Radar Doppler MIRA-36 upgrade (fixed NF)
Ceilometers  MRR (ancillary)
Microwave profiler Compact radar Doppler MIRA 35 (mobile NF)
GPS antenna/receiver (ancillary) RPG94 (fixed NF)
Radiosounding systems (ancillary) Microwave radiometer (Fixed NF)
Meteo station (ancillary)  Ceilometer CL51 (fixed NF)
Radiosounding systems (ancillary) Ceilometer CHL 15k (fixed NF) 
All sky camera Ceilometer CL31 (ancillary - mobile) 
  Transportable radiosounding station (ancillary - mobile)
  Automatic sounding station (Ancillary)
  BSRN (ancillary)
  Doppler lidar (ancillary)
  Ultrasonic anemometer (ancillary)
  Trimble R8s GNSS (ancillary - mobile)
  Disdrometer (Fixed)
  Total Sky Imager TSI-880 (ancillary)


 ACTRIS Aerosol in situ (under implementation)
on-line instruments off-line instruments
Aethalometer ICP-OEs Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrophotometer
Nephelometer OC/EC Analyzer
Aerodynamic Particle Sizer  
ACSM Time-of-Flight Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor  
SMPS Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer  
PM samplers (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1)  
PMX Monitor  


ACTRIS trace gases remote sensing
Available instruments Under implementation


ICOS Atmospheric Class 1 site
Available instruments Under implementation

Atmospheric 100m tall tower


PICARRO system for CO2, CH4 and H20 (sampling at 10, 50, 100 m)


System for N2O and CO (sampling at 10, 50, 100 m)


C14 measurements (sampling at 100 m)


222 Radon monitoring system (sampling at 100 m)


Autosampler for periodical gas analysis (sampling at 100m)




Meteo station at 10, 50 and 100 m