The observatory performs systematic aerosol measurements in the frame of EARLINET (European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork) and continuous aerosol measurements in the frame of AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork). The CIAO infrastructure hosted international satellite validation experiments for the study of water, it has been involved in several international experiments for the study of clouds and their modelling, and strongly cooperates with the Cloudnet. Moreover, since December 2009, CIAO is among the fifteen backbone stations involved in the operations of GRUAN (GCOS Upper-Air Reference Network).

All the products are collected in the CIAO database. The CIAO database is organized in order to collect both the raw data (lv0, lv1) and the final quality assured products (lv2). Level 0 data (lv0) are represented by the raw measurements output of each instrument. The lv1 products are referred to the “raw products”. The lv2 products indicate the estimation of atmospheric parameters retrieved from the application of suitable algorithms to the lv1 products, like the lidar water vapour mixing ratio or the microwave temperature profile.In order to fully exploit the simultaneous use of different ground-based remote sensing techniques, a suitable integration strategy has been adopted at CIAO that allows to obtain a further set of products. All the data are archived in NetCDF format and each file contains all the necessary information for its use in evaluation/validation procedures as well as to reprocess the data in case of the availability of new calibration or retrieval schemes. Before archiving, all the data also undergo the corresponding quality assurance protocols.The database is accessible through the CIAO website (www.imaa.cnr.it) behind a request to the instrument PI. Each instrument PI is also in charge of both checking the status of maintenance procedures and supporting the users. The database and most of the real-time quicklooks of the collected data are also accessible from the websites of the networks in which the CNR-IMAA is involved.


Instruments operative at CIAO  along with the corresponding lv1 and lv2  products, and the advanced products obtained from the synergy and integration of different techniques.

Instrument lv1 products lv2 products Advanced and synergetic products
Multi-wavelength Raman lidar

RCS at 355, 386,

407, 532, 532 parallel,

532 cross, 607, 1064 nm

ß at 355/532/1064,

α at 355/532,

τ at 355/532,  

χ at 355/532

and at 532/1064,

δ at 532 nm, WVMR

Aerosol Microphysical properties.

Water vapour Raman lidar

+ microwave profiler

for water vapour retrieval

using Kalman filtering

Trasportable multi-wavelength Raman lidar

RCS at 355,

386, 532 parallel,

532 cross, 607, 1064 nm

ß at 355/532/1064,

α at 355/532,

τ at 355/532, 

δ at 532 nm

Aerosol Microphysical properties
Water vapor IMAA Raman lidar RCS at 355, 386, 407 nm

ß, α, τ at 355,

WVMR

Water vapour Raman lidar

+ microwave profiler

for water vapour retrieval

using Kalman filtering

Ka-Band Doppler radar

SNR, Z, Ze,

Doppler velocity,

LDR

 LWC, IWC,

Target classification

Radar reflectivity

+ microwave temperature

profile for melting layer retrieval

Microwave profiler K-band and V-band Tbs

Temperature, WVMR,

relative humidity and

liquid water profiles,

IPWV, LWP

Radar reflectivity

+ microwave temperature profile

for melting layer retrieval

 Ceilometer CT 25K

Uncalibrated

backscattering

profile, visibility, 

cloud base height

Microwave profiler neural retrieval

+ ceilometer (or lidar)

cloud base height for LWP retrieval.

Celiometer CHM 15k RCS 1064 nm

Cloud base height,

PBL, visibility,

1064 nm backscattering

profile

 
Infrared thermometer Tb in the 9.6–11.8 μm region Cloud base temperature

Microwave temperature profile

+ Tb in 9.6–11.8 μm band

for cloud base retrieval

Automatic/Manual Radiosounding systems -

Temperature, pressure,

relative humidity,

wind profile

up to 35 km a.g.l.

 -
Ozonesounding systems  

Ozone mixing ratio

profile up to 40 km a.g.l.

 
Surface Meteorological station  

 Surface temperature,

pressure, relative humidity

and wind direction/velocity,

rain gauge

 
GPS antenna/receiver ZTD IPWV  
Allsky camera  180° "fisheye" view of the day and night sky    

 

α: Extinction coefficient; β : Backscattering coefficient; δ: Depolarization ratio;  τ: Optical depth; χ: Angström coefficient; AOT: Aerosol Optical Depth; IPWV: Integrated Precipitable Water Vapour; IWC: Ice Water Content; LDR: Linear Depolarization Ratio; LWC: Liquid Water Content; LWP: Liquid Water Path; RCS: Range-Corrected Signal; SNR: Signal-to-Noise Ratio; Tb: Brightness Temperature; WVMR: Water Vapour Mixing Ratio; Z: Reflectivity factor; Ze: Equivalent reflectivity factor; ZTD: Zenith Total Delay.